A report has found people of African descent in Ireland suffer frequent racist abuse including violence, harassment and discrimination by public institutions.
The report, Afrophobia in Ireland, carried out by the European Network against Racism Ireland, carried out in depth examinations of nearly 200 reported incidents of abuse over a two-year period.
It found that black men and women are persistently shouted at in public, asked to leave public spaces or services, and are accused of benefit fraud.
Speaking on RTÉ’s Morning Ireland, Dr Lucy Michael, sociologist at the University of Ulster, said institutional racism in public services is also a problem.
Dr Michael said it can arise in areas such as social welfare, policing and with local authorities. She added that samples in the area were small, but the types of problems are persistent.